The liquid form for household detergents is gaining market share in many world
markets particularly for dish washing and light-duty applications. Moreover, the
personal care products in liquid form have a substantial share of the market and
can be manufactured in the same plants as liquid detergents.
For this reason, whenever reference is made here in after to liquid detergents,
it is meant to refer also to personal care products.
Independently on the type of liquid detergents or personal care products and
their specific targeted uses, the manufacturing of liquid detergents should be
based on processes, equipment and operation sequences in compliance with the
chemical and physical demands of these products.
The formulated liquid detergent, where the various components have to be
"incorporated", has to be stable. This target is accomplished when all the
formulation components are properly selected and their introduction into the
product recipe is such as to avoid a strong variation to temperature, pH and
viscosity, as well as undesired chemical reactions.
In other words, the manufacturing of liquid detergents requires high care in
constituting stable and strong “micelles” distributed into the liquid product.
This is commonly perceived as "product homogeneity".
What is required for a liquid detergent, independent of its task and specific
application, can be summarised as follows:
Outstanding global performance
Nice appearance (colour and degree of transparency)
Stability vs. storage time, temperature and light effects
The manufacturing of liquid detergents should be based on a good knowledge of
the chemistry and rheology of the detergent components and the capability to
control and to modify their interactions. Suitable and appealing packaging is
also of great importance.The manufacturing of all types of liquid detergents
involves the steps indicated in this scheme:
The production of liquid detergents requires processing equipment capable to
cope with the following demands:
Possibility to process fluids in a wide range of viscosity (up to 5-6000
Possibility to use alcoholic solvents (necessity of explosion-proof design)
Easy coupling with a Computerised Process Control System
High resistance and corrosion-proof construction materials (stainless steel
and special alloys)
Capability to provide high heat-transfer rate (for both cooling and heating)
Capability to provide intimate and constant mixing
Possibility to correct pH, viscosity and temperature (by specific devices)
Possibility of fast and simple cleaning (to reduce product change-over time)
without risk of contamination
Ballestra has developed the LIDET Technology for the production of Liquid
Detergents, offering a wide range of plant capacities and the choice of two
different process routes (Batch or Continuous), in order to cope with the
specific client production requirements.
Regardless of the type of process route, the Ballestra LIDET Plants allow the
production of Liquid Detergents whose application properties and physical
characteristics are summarised here below:
Personal Care Product
Hard – Surface cleansers Industrial/Specific Detergent
100 – 1000 mPa.s
1500 – 5000 mPa.